What specific rules are being pushed within trade agreements?

Rules will vary across different agreements. Some rules relate to less controversial areas such as e-commerce standards, e-signatures and support for cyber security.

In this section we detail rules which we see as more controversial, and which have broader implications.

Cross-border data flows

Rules which seek to maintain the free-flow of data across borders

Data localisation

Related to national rules which force firms to store data within a territory

Custom duties on digital goods

Rules which prevent countries from applying custom duties on digital goods

Source code/Algorithms

Related to rules that force firms to reveal source code or algorithms as part of market entry

Prior Authorisation

Rules which prevent countries having authorization/regulation schemes for digital, which are exclusively an industrial policy tool.

Non-discrimination of digital products

Rules to ensure that all countries in a trade agreement receive equal treatment for digital products crossing borders