What specific rules are being pushed within trade agreements?
Rules will vary across different agreements. Some rules relate to less controversial areas such as e-commerce standards, e-signatures and support for cyber security.
In this section we detail rules which we see as more controversial, and which have broader implications.
Rules which seek to maintain the free-flow of data across borders
Related to national rules which force firms to store data within a territory
Rules which prevent countries from applying custom duties on digital goods
Related to rules that force firms to reveal source code or algorithms as part of market entry
Rules which prevent countries having authorization/regulation schemes for digital, which are exclusively an industrial policy tool.
Rules to ensure that all countries in a trade agreement receive equal treatment for digital products crossing borders